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Wood Lightweight Concrete Composites Structural Elements: Ecological Impact

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1521
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Fadai, Alireza
Borska, Andrea
Winter, Wolfgang
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Energy Efficiency
Ecological Impact
Lightweight Concrete
Europe
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 623-631
Summary
Within several research projects and with the aim to optimize energy efficiency and ecological characteristics of structural building components the Department of Structural Design and Timber Engineering (ITI) at the Vienna University of Technology (VUT) developed several wood-based composite systems, which combine timber products with other conventional building materials and components. As a representative example for these developments, the application of wood lightweight concrete composites illustrates the extent of interrelationships in the development of complex system solutions when focusing on the increase of resource efficiency. The environmental assessment shows the ecological advantages of the developed concept compared to conventional concrete elements and underlines the potential for further developments. Assessment of structural wood-based wood lightweight concrete composites are illustrated in this paper.
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Environmental Performance of Timber Constructions Located in Highly Utilised Area - Based on Realised Buildings Made of Sawn Timber or CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1642
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Environmental Impact
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Yeh, Yu-hsiang
Chiao, Chih-kang
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Energy Performance
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Multi-Storey
Reinforced Concrete
Steel
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3253-3260
Summary
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the environmental performance of various timber constructions that have been realised within intensively utilised area in recent years. The appraisal is carried out by means of life cycle assessment (LCA) and covers different timber constructions, mainly the multi-storey building. The ultimate goal is to compare their environmental performance to the outcomes of other constructions like reinforced concrete (RC) and steel construction (SC). The environmental burdens caused by constructions are evaluated based on the framework of LCA. First, the material inventory of selected building projects is established. The scope is emphasised on the primary structural elements such as columns, beams, deck, load-bearing wall and roof. Secondary components, facility and decoration are eliminated out of the research boundary. Based on the material inventory, the impact assessment is carried out to preliminarily calculate the embodied outcome of the timber constructions. The environmental implications of structural elements during early life cycle stages are evaluated. Then, the effect of both disposal and material recycling is integrated in the LCA, including reuse or recovery of the structural wooden components. The LCA takes into account different disposal scenarios associated with construction and demolition waste (C&DW). By doing so, the LCA is the so-called ‘from cradle to gate’ and ‘gate to cradle’, without consideration upon the using phase. Among numerous environmental indictors, this research quantifies and discusses the energy consumption and global warming potential (GWP) of the timber buildings only. The five-storey timber building located in urban context is a pioneer project in Taiwan. This building applies crosslaminated-timber (CLT) as the primary structural elements and takes over tremendous loading circumstances. It demonstrates not only the engineering feasibility of CLT for architectural design but also the utilising compatibility of wooden house in urban context. The environmental evaluation proofs the ecological efficiency of timber buildings. In addition, this study compares the environmental performance of timber constructions and other materials. Alternative building models made of RC and steel are developed and intended for further LCA. The LCA results demonstrate that timber constructions cause significantly less impacts than RC and SC do. Timber constructions exhibit carbon sequestration effect, which is unique among three materials. Meanwhile, timber constructions consume only about 20% energy of the RC and SC. While possessing similar form and functionality, timber constructions exhibit better eco-efficiency compared to other generally used materials. When the material recycling is taken into account, the life-cycle eco-efficiency of timber structures is further significant. Wooden constructions can be energy-neutral or even energy-productive, depending on the recycling strategies.
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Energy Consumption Analysis of Multistory Cross-Laminated Timber Residential Buildings: A Comparative Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue695
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Khavari, Ali
Pei, Shiling
Tabares-Velasco, Paulo
Publisher
American Society of Civil Engineers
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Energy Consumption
Energy Efficiency
Residential
Sensitivity Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Architectural Engineering
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a new panelized mass timber product that is suitable for building tall wood buildings (higher than eight stories) because of its structural robustness and superior fire resistance as compared with traditional light-framed wood systems. A number of tall CLT buildings have been constructed around the world in the past decade, and taller projects are being planned. The energy efficiency of this emerging building type was evaluated numerically in this comparative study with the use of a building energy simulation program. A 10-story multiunit residential building model constructed using CLT was simulated and compared with a light-frame metal construction model with the same floor plan. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of different weather profiles, building types, and internal load conditions on building energy consumption performance. It was concluded that CLT generally provides significant improvement on heating energy efficiency as a heavy and air-tight envelope, but its energy performance efficiency can be affected by weather, building size, internal loading, and HVAC control.
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Comparison of Environmental Performance of a Five-Storey Building Built with Cross-Laminated Timber and Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue65
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Chen, Yue
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Canada
Concrete
Energy Consumption
Environmental
Mid-Rise
North America
Office Buildings
Passive Buildings
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), which is made by laminating dimension lumber at right angles, is an innovative high-performance building material that offers many positive attributes including renewability, high structural stability, storage of carbon during the building life, good fire resistance, possibility of material recycling and reuse. It is conceptually a sustainable and cost effective structural timber solution that can compete with concrete in non-residential and multi-family mid-rise building market. Therefore, there is a need to understand and quantify the environmental attribute of this building system in the context of North American resources, manufacturing technology, energy constraints, building types, and construction practice. This study is to compare energy consumption of two building designs using different materials, i.e. CLT and concrete.
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A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Two Multistory Residential Buildings: Cross-Laminated Timber Vs. Concrete Slab and Column with Light Gauge Steel Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue339
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Grann, Blane
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mid-Rise
Steel
Canada
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This study provides a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 4060 m2, 4-storey cross laminated timber (CLT) apartment building located in Quebec City, Canada and an equivalently designed building consisting of reinforced concrete slabs and columns with light gauge steel studded walls (CSSW). The emergence of CLT as a structural material that can be used in mid-rise building structures combined with limited work investigating the environmental performance of CLT in building applications provides the motivation for this comparative study.
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A Comparative Cradle-To-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue52
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Robertson, Adam
Lam, Frank
Cole, Raymond
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete
Embodied Carbon
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mid-Rise
National Building Code of Canada
NBCC
North America
Office Buildings
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
ISSN
2075-5309
Summary
The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glulam). The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m2), whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process) of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.
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Report Summary: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Two Multistory Residential Buildings: Cross-Laminated Timber vs. Concrete Slab and Column with Light Gauge Steel Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2643
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Grann, Blane
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Analysis
LCA
Mid-Rise
Multi-Family
Residential Buildings
Concrete
Steel
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This short report summarizes a life cycle assessment (LCA) study comparing a cross-laminated timber mid-rise building to the same building in concrete1. For more detail, refer to the original report which was the product of a rigorous, comparative LCA research project that complied with the international LCA standard ISO 14040:2006. In that study an apartment building in Quebec City, Canada was analyzed using two different building systems in order to understand the environmental footprint of each relative to the other. A LCA model was developed for a real, 4060 m2, 4-storey, cross-laminated timber (CLT) apartment building. The same building was then designed using reinforced concrete slabs and columns with light gauge steel stud walls. That design was intended as a building system that CLT would likely be compared with in the midrise construction market where CLT is likely to compete.
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Report Summary: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Two Multistory Residential Buildings: Cross-Laminated Timber vs. Concrete Slab and Column with Light Gauge Steel Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2612
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Grann, Blane
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
LCA
Concrete
Multi-Family
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This short report summarizes a life cycle assessment (LCA) study comparing a cross-laminated timber mid-rise building to the same building in concrete1. For more detail, refer to the original report which was the product of a rigorous, comparative LCA research project that complied with the international LCA standard ISO 14040:2006. In that study an apartment building in Quebec City, Canada was analyzed using two different building systems in order to understand the environmental footprint of each relative to the other. A LCA model was developed for a real, 4060 m2, 4-storey, cross-laminated timber (CLT) apartment building. The same building was then designed using reinforced concrete slabs and columns with light gauge steel stud walls. That design was intended as a building system that CLT would likely be compared with in the midrise construction market where CLT is likely to compete.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Environmental Performances of a Timber-Concrete Prefabricated Composite Wall System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1343
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Walls
Author
Fortuna, Stefano
Dalla Mora, Tiziano
Peron, Fabio
Romagnoni, Piercarlo
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Walls
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete Glulam Framed Panel
Embodied Energy
Carbon Footprint
Cradle-to-Gate
Prefabrication
Reinforced Concrete
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Energy Procedia
Summary
The improvement of environmental performance in building construction could be achieved by prefabrication. This study quantifies and compares the environmental impacts of a Concrete Glulam Framed Panel (CGFP): the basic configuration of this precast component consists in a Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) frame structure supporting a thin reinforced concrete slab with an interior insulation panel and covered by finishing layers. The research investigates also alternative design of configuration with the substitution of different insulation materials in order to minimize the Embodied Energy and Carbon Footprint values. The boundary of the quantitative analysis is “cradle to gate” including the structural support system; an IMPACT 2002+ characterization methodology is employed to translate inventory flows into impacts indicators. Results present very low values for carbon footprint (60.63 kg CO2eq m-2) and the embodied energy values (919.44 MJ m-2) indicate this hybrid precast structure as a valid alternative building constructions and processes. A detailed discussion of the outputs is presented, including the comparison of the environmental performances depending on different insulation materials.
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A Comparison of the Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction Performance between Reinforced Concrete and Cross-Laminated Timber Structures in Residential Buildings in the Severe Cold Region of China

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1207
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Guo, Haibo
Liu, Ying
Meng, Yiping
Huang, Haoyu
Sun, Cheng
Shao, Yu
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Energy Consumption
Carbon Emissions
Residential
Severe Cold Regions
Simulation
Reinforced Concrete
Life-Cycle Assessment
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
ISSN
2071-1050
Summary
This paper aims to investigate the energy saving and carbon reduction performance of cross-laminated timber residential buildings in the severe cold region of China through a computational simulation approach. The authors selected Harbin as the simulation environment, designed reference residential buildings with different storeys which were constructed using reinforced concrete (RC) and cross-laminated timber (CLT) systems, then simulated the energy performance using the commercial software IESTM and finally made comparisions between the RC and CLT buildings. The results show that the estimated energy consumption and carbon emissions for CLT buildings are 9.9% and 13.2% lower than those of RC buildings in view of life-cycle assessment. This indicates that the CLT construction system has good potential for energy saving when compared to RC in the severe cold region of China. The energy efficiency of residential buildings is closely related to the height for both RC and CLT buildings. In spite of the higher cost of materials for high-rise buildings, both RC and CLT tall residential buildings have better energy efficiency than low-rise and mid-rise buildings in the severe cold region of China.
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Free
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10 records – page 1 of 1.