This project assesses the fire resistance of laminated timber structural systems as wall and floor assemblies. Full-scale tests were conducted to assess structural fire resistance and charring behaviour. This research could be used to expand current fire design provisions and support inclusion of these types of assemblies into Annex B of CSA O86.
The intent of this project is to research evaluation and rehabilitation methods that are applicable to mass timber structures following a fire. This includes addressing both fire damage and water damage from sprinkler activation and/or the use of firefighting hoses. This report provides an overview of the type of damage that might be expected following a fire and methods that might reduce potential damage (including design elements and firefighting tactics). Current and existing rehabilitation methods for wood construction will be reviewed and their applicability to mass timber structures will be discussed. This includes the ability to conduct condition assessments and repairs on building elements that can be done in place. The overall objective is to reduce uncertainty related to mass timber construction, which ultimately would allow for more accurate risk evaluation by insurance companies.
Based on classic vibrational bending theory on beams, this paper provides comprehensive analytical formulae for dynamic characteristics of two equal span continuous timber flooring systems, including frequency equations, modal frequencies, and modal shapes. Four practical boundary conditions are considered for end supports, including free, sliding, pinned, and fixed boundaries, and a total of sixteen combinations of flooring systems are created. The deductions of analytical formulae are also expanded to two unequal span continuous flooring systems with pinned end supports, and empirical equations for obtaining the fundamental frequency are proposed. The acquired analytical equations for vibrational characteristics can be applied for practical design of two-span continuous flooring systems. Two practical design examples are provided as well.
This monitoring study aims to generate field performance data from a highly energy efficient building in the west coast climate as part of FPInnovations’ efforts to assist the building sector in developing durable and energy efficient wood-based buildings. A six-storey mixed-use building, with five storeys of wood-frame residential construction on top of concrete commercial space was completed in early 2018 in the City of Vancouver. It was designed to meet the Passive House standard. The instrumentation aimed to gather field data related to the indoor environment, building envelope moisture performance, and vertical movement to address the most critical concerns among practitioners for such buildings.
This report explores the building code related considerations of wood construction for school buildings that are up to four storeys in height. Though wood construction offers a viable structural material option for these buildings, the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC 2018) currently limits schools comprised of wood construction to a maximum of two storeys. Three- and four-storey schools and larger floor areas in wood construction require an Alternative Solution.
The report identifies key fire safety features offered by combustible construction materials including tested and currently widely available engineered mass timber products, such as glued-laminated timber and cross-laminated timber. A risk analysis identifies the risk areas defined by the objectives of the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC 2018) and evaluates the level of performance of the Building Code solutions for assembly occupancies vis-à-vis the level of performance offered by the proposed schools up to four storeys in building height.
As land values continue to rise, particularly in higher-density urban environments, schools with smaller footprints will become increasingly more necessary to satisfy enrollment demands. There are currently a number of planned new school projects throughout British Columbia that anticipate requiring either three-or four-storey buildings, and it is forecasted that the demand for school buildings of this size will continue to rise.
This report is closely related to the study Design Options for Three-and Four-Storey Wood School Buildings in British Columbia, which illustrates the range of possible timber construction approaches for school buildings that are up to four storeys in height.
Project contact is Christian Dagenais at Université Laval
The National Building Code of Canada (NBCC, NRC 2015) proposes equations to limit acceleration at the top of a tall building. These equations were developed and validated on several buildings designed between 1975 and 2000. The buildings built during these years are made of concrete or steel. It is therefore not certain that the NBCC equations can be applied for tall wooden buildings; wood being a lighter material than concrete and steel. In this project, the PhD candidate will study the impact of lateral load resistance systems and fastening systems used in timber framing on natural frequency and damping as well as its response due to wind loads. The influence of non-structural elements will also be studied. Two high-rise wooden buildings (Origine, 13 floors in Quebec City and Arbora, 8 floors in Montreal) are currently being instrumented to obtain information on the dynamic behavior of the structure. The measurements taken on these two buildings will be used, among other things, to validate theoretical models developed in the context of the doctorate.
Project contact is Conrad Boton at ETS (École de technologie supérieure)
The objective is to explore the ability of new approaches such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) and the Integrated Design Process (IPD) to: provide a more favorable design framework for improvement fire safety in high-rise construction projects in solid wood; make the best constructive choices through a constructability study assisted by digital tools of virtual construction; perform more realistic simulations of fire behaviour to better analyze risks and implement more effective management strategies.
This study illustrates the range of possible wood construction approaches for school buildings that are up to four storeys in height. As land values continue to rise, particularly in higher-density urban environments, schools with smaller footprints will become increasingly more necessary to satisfy enrollment demands. There are currently a number of planned new school projects throughout British Columbia that anticipate requiring either three-or four-storey buildings, and it is forecasted that the demand for school buildings of this size will continue to rise.
This study is closely related to the report Risk Analysis and Alternative Solution for Three- and Four-Storey Schools of Mass Timber and/or Wood-Frame Construction prepared by GHL Consultants, which explores the building code related considerations of wood construction for school buildings that are up to four storeys in height. Though wood construction offers a viable structural material option for these buildings, the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC 2018) currently limits schools comprised of wood construction to a maximum of two storeys, while also imposing limits on the overall floor area. As such, the reader is referred to the GHL report for further information regarding building code compliance (with a particular emphasis on fire protection) for wood school buildings.