The use of Cross-Laminated Timber products has increased in recent years with a range of structural applications including CLT tall buildings and folded structures. As CLT is used in more innovative structural applications the need for specific methods of design and analysis are apparent. A review of the literature demonstrates that despite the increasing popularity of CLT in construction there are limited methods for the design and analysis of CLT panels and structures that fully utilise its unique properties. Manufacturer data relating to the CLT material properties varies how the cross directional laminas are considered. Finally it was found that there is limited published knowledge regarding CLT material properties for panels loaded non-tangentially to the direction of the timber grain. A method for predicting failure loads and modes has been presented and compared with experimental test data. A Strut and Tie model is proposed for the analysis of CLT panels, a methodology originally developed to design of reinforced concrete deep beams. The Strut and Tie approach considers panel geometry, loads, supports, different properties in tension and compression and was adapted to consider anisotropic behaviour. The procedure, advantages and limitations have been presented and a model developed for an application in CLT. The use of this model is considered for the analysis of simple CLT panel loadings. The behaviour of CLT at different timber grain angles demonstrate a complex composite behaviour influencing the strut and tie capacities. The definition of node sizes was also found to be critical to the definitions of the struts and ties and hence the capacity of the sections. Comparison of experimental tests to the model demonstrates some application to using a Strut and Tie in CLT panels. It identifies where additional investigation is required to improve, develop and validate the model into a method that may be used for full-scale CLT panels and structures in design practice and consider a variety of geometries and loading arrangements.
Since the development of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), there has been a surge in interest in massive timber buildings. Furthermore, recent conceptual and feasibility designs of massive timber towers of 30 or more stories indicate that performance of mass timber structural elements can compete with other building materials in the commercial industry (MGB Architecture and Design et al.). However, in order for massive timber to penetrate the commercial market even further, a solution is needed for long-span massive timber floor systems. Unfortunately, CLT falls short in this area and is unable to span long distances. The hollow massive timber (HMT) panel presented in this thesis offers one potential long-span solution.
The goal of this project is to contribute to the development of design values for cross-laminated timber (CLT) diaphragms in the seismic load-resisting system for buildings. Monotonic and cyclic tests to determine strength and stiffness characteristics of 2.44 m (8 ft) long shear connections with common self-tapping screws were performed. Understanding and quantifying the behavior of these shear connections will aid in developing design provisions in the National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the International Building Code so structural engineers can use CLT more confidently in lateral force-resisting systems and extend the heights of wood buildings. Experimental strength-to-design strength ratios were in the range of 2.1 to 8.7. In the ASCE 41 acceptance criteria analysis, the m-factors for the Life Safety performance level in cyclic tests ranged from 1.6 to 1.8 for surface spline connections and from 0.9 to 1.7 for cyclic half-lap connections. The half-lap connections, where screws were installed in withdrawal, shear, shear, and withdrawal, performed exceptionally well with both high, linear-elastic, initial stiffness, and ductile, post-peak behavior.
Creating a value-added product using low-grade lumber produced from small-diameter timber would improve the economic balance for forest restoration operation. The general aim of this research was to increase or stimulate markets for wood products utilizing low-value small-diameter material generated in National Forest System restoration programs. Our hypothesis is that low-value lumber cut from small-diameter logs (4”-6” at the small end) could be successfully utilized in core layers of structural cross laminated timber (CLT) panels.
However, to be qualified for structural uses, CLT must meet standard minimum bond integrity criteria specified by the North American product standard (ANSI/APA PRG 320-2012), determined through laboratory testing for delamination (=5%) and shear resistance (=80% wood failure). The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of small-diameter logs harvested from National Forest System restoration programs in 3- and 5ply CLT panels. Adding value to low-value timber harvested from USFS lands by using it within CLT applications is expected to increase profitability of the harvested timber, offsetting costs for the restoration programs. The specific objectives were to: (1) build and test CLT panels utilizing lumber from forest restoration operations in core layers of panels against the certification criteria per PRG 320-2012 to allow low-grade lumber in cores of structural CLT; (2) based on findings, propose respective changes to the current North American standard PRG 320-2012; and (3) investigate the efficiency of the primary processing of small-logs from the thinnings and lamination options with lumber produced from these small logs.