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10 records – page 1 of 1.

Economic-Design Optimization of Cross Laminated Timber Plates with Ribs

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1362
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Cost
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Stanic, Andjelka
Hudobivnik, Blaž
Brank, Boštjan
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Cost
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Plates
Eurocode 5
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Composite Structures
Summary
An economic-design optimization of cross-laminated timber (CLT) plate with stiffening ribs is presented. For the structural analysis, an enhanced assumed strain (EAS) solid finite element is used. It behaves well for thin plates (with no shear locking) and delivers reasonable approximations for the transverse shear stresses in layered composites. Eurocodes 5 (EC5) are followed in defining the optimization constraints, which include deflections, stresses and fundamental eigenfrequency. The gradient optimization is performed. Analytical expressions for sensitivities are obtained by an automatic differentiation tool. The result is an economic timber plate configuration that complies with the EC5 requirements. Numerical examples are presented in order to illustrate the approach.
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Timber-Glass Composite: Long-term Behavior

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1743
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Serviceability
Mechanical Properties
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
Timber-Glass Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Fadai, Alireza
Nicklisch, Felix
Rinnhofer, Matthias
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Glass Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Serviceability
Mechanical Properties
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
Stiffening
Multi-Story
Long-term
Load Bearing
Creep
Façade
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4921-4929
Summary
Up to now, structural sealant glazing façades have been extensively applied. They are at the cutting edge of technology and meet the highest standards. The objective of several research projects was to develop stiffening glass fronts, which replace expensive frameworks or wind bracings behind the large glass windows. Thus, potential applications...
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New Attributes and Economic Analyses of Composite CLT and Value-Added Appearance-Based CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue354
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Cost
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Frédéric
Wang, Brad
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Cost
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Delamination
Hardwood
Softwood
Structural Composite Lumber
Economic Analysis
Structural Properties
Aesthetic Properties
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objective of this study was to examine new attributes and conduct economic analyses for composite CLT (CCLT) and value-added appearance-based CLT products manufactured with varying substitution of softwood lumber with structural composite lumber (SCL) and hardwood lumber. Incentives for including such materials could be aesthetic, structural and economic. Structural and aesthetic property assessments were carried out on prototype CLT panels. Multiple CLT panel configurations (17) were evaluated to assess the effects of including hardwood and SCL materials in the layups. Presence of hardwood in the panels’ configuration generally led to higher checking and density. Because of the higher shrinkage of hardwood, the bondline suffered from more delamination. A lower density hardwood (aspen) was included in some configurations and exhibited a greater direct compatibility with current Canadian manufacturing process. Changes to this process, such as selecting a hardwood specific adhesive may lead to improvements.
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Feasibility of Cross Laminated Timber Panels in Construction: A Case Study of Carbon12

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2594
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Graber, Erik
Publisher
California Polytechnic State University
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Case Study
Cost comparison
Concrete Slab
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is an extremely strong engineered wood panel intended for roof, floor, or wall applications. Currently there is little research comparing CLT to steel and concrete, materials CLT hopes to replace This research uses a detailed literary analysis on CLT and case study on Carbon12, a recently constructed CLT structure in Portland, Oregon, to compare the cost and schedule requirements of CLT with a cast-in-place concrete slab. The case study consisted of a detailed analysis of Carbon12, interview with Scott Noble, senior project manager for Carbon12, and a detailed schedule and cost analysis. Results showed that for a concrete floor system used on Carbon12, material costs were far less than costs for a CLT floor system and labor costs were far greater than costs for a CLT floor system. For the schedule analysis, results showed that a concrete floor system would add an additional 10 weeks to the construction schedule of Carbon12. These results led to the conclusion that CLT is a feasible building material for dense, urban, mid-rise structures similar to Carbon12. The quick installation time, small crew, and environmental benefits of CLT outweigh the added costs of the material.
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Timber-Glass Composites: Calculation and Sizing Concept

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1741
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Cost
Material
Timber-Glass Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Hochhauser, Werner
Fadai, Alireza
Rinnhofer, Matthias
Winter, Wolfgang
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Glass Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Cost
Keywords
Long-term
Load Bearing Capacity
Multi-Story
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4904-4912
Summary
Glued glass front constructions have long been in use and are generally considered the state of the art. However, with these solutions the glass serves no stiffening or bearing function, but merely functions as an outer cover. The objective of several research projects was to investigate alternative constructions of stiffening glass fronts, which...
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Free
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Composite Cross Laminated Timber (CCLT) Made with Engineered Wood Products (EWP) and Hardwood

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1578
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Frédéric
Wang, Brad
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Dimensional Stability
SPF
Birch
Aspen
Maple
Equilibrium Moisture Content
Delamination
Bond Line
Manufacturing
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 1723-1730
Summary
North American cross laminated timber is currently made of softwood lumber following the guidelines of the ANSI/APA PRG-320 manufacturing standard. In this study, the potential of manufacturing CLT panels using various hardwood species and engineered wood products (EWP) was investigated for their compatibility and the impact on the dimensional stability and aesthetics of the end products. Yellow birch, trembling aspen, sugar maple, laminated strand lumber (LSL) and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) were compared to 100% spruce-pine-fir group species (SPF) lumber made CLT panel. The bond line performance of the assemblies was tested as well as the dimensional stability and appearance of the panels when subjected to conditions with equilibrium moisture contents (EMC) of 4.5%, 12% and 16%. Results showed that higher density hardwood species were prone to delamination. LSL, LVL and trembling aspen yielded promising delamination results. Best overall dimensional stability results were achieved with EWP inclusive configurations. Aesthetic integrity assessment showed that the use of hardwood for the core layer and edge gluing of softwood outer layers had a negative impact. Overall, the study showed a great potential for manufacturing future composite CLT (CCLT) products using EWP and low density hardwood species. The cost premium of using these alternative materials would need to be offset by valuable sets of properties or by a reduction of the manufacturing cost.
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Manufacturing Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT): Technological and Economic Analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2636
Year of Publication
2010
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Julien, F.
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2010
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Keywords
Manufacturing
Economic Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Innovative Engineered Timber Building Systems for Non-Residential Applications, Utilising Timber Concrete Composite Flooring Capable of Spanning Up to 8 to 10m

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1933
Year of Publication
2010
Topic
Market and Adoption
Design and Systems
Cost
Environmental Impact
Mechanical Properties
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Frames

Use of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in Industrial Buildings in Nordic Climate — A Case Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2352
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Energy Performance
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Comparison of Different Assembling Techniques Regarding Cost, Durability, and Ecology: A Survey of Multi-Layer Wooden Panel Assembly Load-Bearing Construction Elements

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue62
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Buck, Dietrich
Wang, Alice
Hagman, Olle
Gustafsson, Anders
Publisher
North Carolina State University
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Keywords
Durability
Assembling Techniques
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
BioResources
Summary
Wood is a pure, sustainable, renewable material. The increasing use of wood for construction can improve its sustainability. There are various techniques to assemble multi-layer wooden panels into prefabricated, load-bearing construction elements. However, comparative market and economy studies are still scarce. In this study, the following assembling techniques were compared: laminating, nailing, stapling, screwing, stress laminating, doweling, dovetailing, and wood welding. The production costs, durability, and ecological considerations were presented. This study was based on reviews of published works and information gathered from 27 leading wood product manufacturing companies in six European countries. The study shows that the various techniques of assembling multi-layer wooden construction panel elements are very different. Cross laminated timber (CLT) exhibited the best results in terms of cost and durability. With regard to ecological concerns, dovetailing is the best. Taking into account both durability and ecological considerations, wooden screw-doweling is the best. These alternatives give manufacturers some freedom of choice regarding the visibility of surfaces and the efficient use of lower-quality timber. CLT is the most cost-effective, is not patented, and is a well-established option on the market today.
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10 records – page 1 of 1.